HTML Character Entities

As Referenced In

Creating Cool Web Sites with HTML, XHTML and CSS

Ask Dave Taylor
Here's something you want to know: this table is directly based on the official HTML 4.0 character entity information included in the HTML 4.01 specification. The question of usefulness is my own rating; it's mostly about trying to highlight some of the entities that I use on a frequent basis and shouldn't be interpreted as any sort of Anglocentric bias on my part! Got questions about HTML or Web technologies? Ask Dave Taylor!

Useful? Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
*   no-break space
 ¡¡ inverted exclamation mark
 ¢¢ cent sign
 ££ pound sterling sign
 ¤¤ general currency sign
 ¥¥ yen sign
 ¦¦ broken (vertical) bar
 §§ section sign
 ¨¨ umlaut (dieresis)
*©© copyright sign
 ªª ordinal indicator, feminine
 «« angle quotation mark, left
 ¬¬ not sign
 ­­ soft hyphen
*®® registered sign
 ¯¯ macron
 °° degree sign
 ±± plus-or-minus sign
 ²² superscript two
 ³³ superscript three
 ´´ acute accent
 µµ micro sign
*¶ pilcrow (paragraph sign)
 ·· middle dot
 ¸¸ cedilla
 ¹¹ superscript one
 ºº ordinal indicator, masculine
 »» angle quotation mark, right
*¼¼ fraction one-quarter
*½½ fraction one-half
*¾¾ fraction three-quarters
 ¿¿ inverted question mark
 ÀÀ capital A, grave accent
 ÁÁ capital A, acute accent
 ÂÂ capital A, circumflex accent
 ÃÃ capital A, tilde
 ÄÄ capital A, dieresis or umlaut mark
 ÅÅ capital A, ring
 ÆÆ capital AE diphthong (ligature)
 ÇÇ capital C, cedilla
 ÈÈ capital E, grave accent
 ÉÉ capital E, acute accent
 ÊÊ capital E, circumflex accent
 ËË capital E, dieresis or umlaut mark
 ÌÌ capital I, grave accent
 ÍÍ capital I, acute accent
 ÎÎ capital I, circumflex accent
 ÏÏ capital I, dieresis or umlaut mark
 ÐÐ capital Eth, Icelandic
 ÑÑ capital N, tilde
 ÒÒ capital O, grave accent
 ÓÓ capital O, acute accent
 ÔÔ capital O, circumflex accent
 ÕÕ capital O, tilde
 ÖÖ capital O, dieresis or umlaut mark
 ×× multiply sign
 ØØ capital O, slash
 ÙÙ capital U, grave accent
 ÚÚ capital U, acute accent
 ÛÛ capital U, circumflex accent
 ÜÜ capital U, dieresis or umlaut mark
 ÝÝ capital Y, acute accent
 ÞÞ capital THORN, Icelandic
*ßß small sharp s, German (sz ligature)
 àà small a, grave accent
 áá small a, acute accent
 ââ small a, circumflex accent
 ãã small a, tilde
 ää small a, dieresis or umlaut mark
 åå small a, ring
 ææ small ae diphthong (ligature)
 çç small c, cedilla
 èè small e, grave accent
 éé small e, acute accent
 êê small e, circumflex accent
 ëë small e, dieresis or umlaut mark
 ìì small i, grave accent
 íí small i, acute accent
 îî small i, circumflex accent
 ïï small i, dieresis or umlaut mark
 ðð small eth, Icelandic
*ññ small n, tilde
 òò small o, grave accent
 óó small o, acute accent
 ôô small o, circumflex accent
 õõ small o, tilde
 öö small o, dieresis or umlaut mark
 ÷÷ divide sign
 øø small o, slash
 ùù small u, grave accent
 úú small u, acute accent
 ûû small u, circumflex accent
 üü small u, dieresis or umlaut mark
 ýý small y, acute accent
 þþ small thorn, Icelandic
 ÿÿ small y, dieresis or umlaut mark

Controls and Basic Latin

Useful? Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 "" quotation mark, apl quote
*&& ampersand
*&lt;< less-than sign
*&gt;> greater-than sign


Unsupported ISO Character Entities

Here's the reality; the HTML 4.0 specification contains a ton of different character entity specifications, including some fun ones like &hearts; for a small heart symbol, but they're not supported in the current version of the different web browsers. Will they be supported in the future? I don't know, but I will say that if you view the following material and you see Greek characters, mathematical symbols, etc, you're doing great! If not, your browser doesn't yet support these particular symbols.

Named entities for symbols, mathematical symbols, and Greek letters

The named character entities in this section produce characters that may be represented by glyphs in the widely available Adobe Symbol font, including Greek characters, various bracketing symbols, and a selection of mathematical operators such as gradient, product, and summation symbols.

To support these entities, user agents may support full ISO 10646 or use other means. Display of glyphs for these characters may be obtained by being able to display the relevant characters or by other means, such as internally mapping the listed entities, numeric character references, and characters to the appropriate position in some font that contains the requisite glyphs.

When to use Greek entities: This entity set contains all the letters used in modern Greek. However, it does not include Greek punctuation, precomposed accented characters nor the non-spacing accents (tonos, dialytika) required to compose them. There are no archaic letters, Coptic-unique letters, or precomposed letters for Polytonic Greek. The entities defined here are not intended for the representation of modern Greek text and would not be an efficient representation; rather, they are intended for occasional Greek letters used in technical and mathematical works.


Mathematical, Greek and Symbolic characters for HTML

Relevant ISO entity set is given unless names are newly introduced. New names (i.e., not in ISO 8879 list) do not clash with any existing ISO 8879 entity names. ISO 10646 character numbers are given for each character, in hex. CDATA values are decimal conversions of the ISO 10646 values and refer to the document character set. Names are Unicode 2.0 names.
Widely
Supported
Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 &fnof;ƒ latin small f with hook
 &Alpha;Α greek capital letter alpha
 &Beta;Β greek capital letter beta
 &Gamma;Γ greek capital letter gamma
 &Delta;Δ greek capital letter delta
 &Epsilon;Ε greek capital letter epsilon
 &Zeta;Ζ greek capital letter zeta
 &Eta;Η greek capital letter eta
 &Theta;Θ greek capital letter theta
 &Iota;Ι greek capital letter iota
 &Kappa;Κ greek capital letter kappa
 &Lambda;Λ greek capital letter lambda
 &Mu;Μ greek capital letter mu
 &Nu;Ν greek capital letter nu
 &Xi;Ξ greek capital letter xi
 &Omicron;Ο greek capital letter omicron
 &Pi;Π greek capital letter pi
 &Rho;Ρ greek capital letter rho
 &Sigma;Σ greek capital letter sigma
 &Tau;Τ greek capital letter tau
 &Upsilon;Υ greek capital letter upsilon
 &Phi;Φ greek capital letter phi
 &Chi;Χ greek capital letter chi
 &Psi;Ψ greek capital letter psi
 &Omega;Ω greek capital letter omega
 &alpha;α greek small letter alpha
 &beta;β greek small letter beta
 &gamma;γ greek small letter gamma
 &delta;δ greek small letter delta
 &epsilon;ε greek small letter epsilon
 &zeta;ζ greek small letter zeta
 &eta;η greek small letter eta
 &theta;θ greek small letter theta
 &iota;ι greek small letter iota
 &kappa;κ greek small letter kappa
 &lambda;λ greek small letter lambda
 &mu;μ greek small letter mu
 &nu;ν greek small letter nu
 &xi;ξ greek small letter xi
 &omicron;ο greek small letter omicron
 &pi;π greek small letter pi
 &rho;ρ greek small letter rho
 &sigmaf;ς greek small letter final sigma
 &sigma;σ greek small letter sigma
 &tau;τ greek small letter tau
 &upsilon;υ greek small letter upsilon
 &phi;φ greek small letter phi
 &chi;χ greek small letter chi
 &psi;ψ greek small letter psi
 &omega;ω greek small letter omega
 &thetasym;ϑ greek small letter theta symbol
 &upsih;ϒ greek upsilon with hook symbol
 &piv;ϖ greek pi symbol

General Punctuation

Widely
Supported
Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 &bull; bullet, black small circle
 &hellip; horizontal ellipsis, three dot leader
 &prime; prime, minutes, feet
 &Prime; double prime, seconds, inches
 &oline; overline, spacing overscore
 &frasl; fraction slash

Letterlike Symbols

Widely
Supported
Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 &weierp; script capital P, Weierstrass p
 &image; blackletter capital I, imaginary part
 &real; blackletter capital R, real part symbol
 &trade; trade mark sign
 &alefsym; alef symbol, first transfinite cardinal

Arrows

Widely
Supported
Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 &larr; leftwards arrow
 &uarr; upwards arrow
 &rarr; rightwards arrow
 &darr; downwards arrow
 &harr; left right arrow
 &crarr; downwards arrow with corner leftwards (carriage return)
 &lArr; leftwards double arrow
 &uArr; upwards double arrow
 &rArr; rightwards double arrow
 &dArr; downwards double arrow
 &hArr; left right double arrow

Mathematical Operators

Widely
Supported
Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 &forall; for all
 &part; partial differential
 &exist; there exists
 &empty; empty set, null set, diameter
 &nabla; nabla, backward difference
 &isin; element of
 &notin; not an element of
 &ni; contains as member
 &prod; n-ary product, product sign
 &sum; n-ary sumation
 &minus; minus sign
 &lowast; asterisk operator
 &radic; square root, radical sign
 &prop; proportional to
 &infin; infinity
 &ang; angle
 &and; logical and, wedge
 &or; logical or, vee
 &cap; intersection, cap
 &cup; union, cup
 &int; integral
 &there4; therefore
 &sim; tilde operator, varies with, similar to
 &cong; approximately equal to
 &asymp; almost equal to, asymptotic to
 &ne; not equal to
 &equiv; identical to
 &le; less-than or equal to
 &ge; greater-than or equal to
 &sub; subset of
 &sup; superset of
 &nsub; not a subset of
 &sube; subset of or equal to
 &supe; superset of or equal to
 &oplus; circled plus, direct sum
 &otimes; circled times, vector product
 &perp; up tack, orthogonal to, perpendicular
 &sdot; dot operator

Miscellaneous Technical

Widely
Supported
Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 &lceil; left ceiling, apl upstile
 &rceil; right ceiling
 &lfloor; left floor, apl downstile
 &rfloor; right floor
 &lang; left-pointing angle bracket, bra
 &rang; right-pointing angle bracket, ket

Geometric Shapes

Widely
Supported
Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 &loz; lozenge

Miscellaneous Symbols

Widely
Supported
Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 &spades; black spade suit
 &clubs; black club suit, shamrock
 &hearts; black heart suit, valentine
 &diams; black diamond suit


Named entities for markup-significant and internationalization characters

The named character entities in this section are for escaping markup-significant characters (these are the same as those in HTML 2.0 and 3.2), for denoting spaces and dashes. Other characters in this section apply to internationalization issues such as the disambiguation of bidirectional text (see the section on bidirectional text for details).

Entities have also been added for the remaining characters occuring in CP-1252 which do not occur in the HTML symbol entity sets. These all occur in the 128 to 159 range within the cp-1252 charset. These entities permit the characters to be denoted in a platform-independent manner.

To support these entities, user agents may support full [ISO10646] or use other means. Display of glyphs for these characters may be obtained by being able to display the relevant [ISO10646] characters or by other means, such as internally mapping the listed entities, numeric character references, and characters to the appropriate position in some font that contains the requisite glyphs.

Special characters for HTML

Latin Extended-A

Widely
Supported
Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 &OElig;Œ latin capital ligature oe
 &oelig;œ latin small ligature oe
 &Scaron;Š latin capital letter s with caron
 &scaron;š latin small letter s with caron
 &Yuml;Ÿ latin capital letter y with diaeresis

Spacing Modifier Letters

Widely
Supported
Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 &circ;ˆ modifier letter circumflex accent
 &tilde;˜ small tilde

General Punctuation

Widely
Supported
Entity
Encoding
Looks
Like
Explanation of Symbol
 &ensp; en space
 &emsp; em space
 &thinsp; thin space
 &zwnj; zero width non-joiner
 &zwj; zero width joiner
 &lrm; left-to-right mark
 &rlm; right-to-left mark
 &ndash; en dash
 &mdash; em dash
 &lsquo; left single quotation mark
 &rsquo; right single quotation mark
 &sbquo; single low-9 quotation mark
 &ldquo; left double quotation mark
 &rdquo; right double quotation mark
 &bdquo; double low-9 quotation mark
 &dagger; dagger
 &Dagger; double dagger
 &permil; per mille sign
Portions © International Organization for Standardization 1986. Permission to copy in any form is granted for use with conforming SGML systems and applications as defined in ISO 8879, provided this notice is included in all copies.
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